Philip Juras - MLA Thesis 1997  
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The Presettlement Piedmont Savanna - A Model For Landscape Design and Management - Philip Juras 1997 (pdf format)
Table of Contents - Chapters: One - Two - Three - Four - Five - Six - Seven - Eight - Works Cited - Appendices: A - B - C - D - E

Appendix D

BURNING MEADOW POTENTIAL HERB LAYER SPECIES LIST

Meadow / roadside  native  herbaceous  species of the Clemson area Compiled from Haywood; Jones and Foote; Radford, Ahles and Bell; Niering and Olmstead; and Batson.

Grasses

Botanical Name
 

Common Name

Moisture

Height

Bloom Time

Color

Showy

Agrostis hymenalis

Bentgrass

drier

< 24"

Apr-Nov

   

Agrostis perennans

Bentgrass

wetter

< 30"

Aug-Nov

   

Andropogon gerardii

Big Bluestem

drier

36-72"

Jul-Oct

   

Andropogon virginicus

Broomsedge

wet-dry

36-60"'

Sep-Oct

   

Aira elegens

Hair Grass

drier

4-18"

May June

   

Aristida oligantha

Three Awn

drier

8-24"

Aug-Oct

   

Aristida dichotoma

Three Awn Grass

drier

< 28"

Aug-Oct

yellow-purp

 

Arundinaria gigantea

Cane

wetter

20-400"

sporadic

   

Danthonia spicata

Northern Oat Grass

drier

4-30"

May-Jul

   

Elymus virginicus

Virginia Wild Rye

drier

36-48"

Jun-Oct

   

Eragrostis hirsuta

Love Grass

drier

.5-1"

Jul-Oct

reddish

 

Eragrostis refracta

Love Grass

wetter

12-40"

Jul-Oct

reddish

 

Eragrostis spectabilis

Purple Love Grass

drier

16-32"

Aug-Oct

purplish

 

Erianthus alopecuroides

Woolly Plume Grass

drier

120"

Oct-Nov

   

Erianthus contortus

Plume Grass

drier

40-80"

Sep-Oct

   

Gymnopogon ambiguus

Beard Grass

drier

12-24"

Aug-Oct

   

Panicum anceps

 

drier

12-48"

Jul-Oct

   

Panicum dichotomum

 

wetter

6-48"

Apr-Oct

   

Panicum sphaerocarpon

 

drier

6-24"

Jun-Oct

   

Paspalum boscianum

 

drier

12-36"

Jul-Oct

greyish

 

Paspalum floridanum

 

drier

24-60"

Aug-Oct

dark red

 

Paspalum laeve

 

drier

12-36"

Jun-Aug

yellowish

 

Paspalum setaceum

 

drier

4-32"

Jun-Sep

   

Setaria glauca

Foxtail Grass

drier

8-40"

Jul-Oct

   

Schizachyrium scoparium

Little Blue Stem

drier

30-60"

Aug-Oct

   

Sorghastrum nutans

Indian Grass

wet-dry

96"

Sep-Oct

yellowish

 

Sphenopholis obtusata

Wedge Grass

drier

8-30"

Apr-May

   

Tridens flavus

Purple Top

drier

32-60"

Jul-Oct

purplish

 

Vulpia octoflora

Six Weeks Grass

drier

6-24"

Apr-Jun

red

 

Forbs

Botanical Name
 

Common Name

Moisture

Height

Bloom Time

Color

Showy

Acalphya rhomboidea

Three-seeded Mercury

drier

1.5"

Jun-frost

   

Agalinis purpurea

Purple Gerardia

wetter

16-48"

Aug-frost

purple

+

Agalinis tenuifolia

Gerardia

drier

8-24"

Aug-Oct

lavender

 

Aletris farinosa

Colicroot

wet-dry

16-48"

Apr-Jun, Jul-Aug

white

+

Allium bivalve

False Garlic

drier

6-18"   

Mar-May, Sep-Oct

white

 

Amianthium muscaetoxicum

Fly Poison

dry-wet

4-24"

May-Jul, Jul-Sep

white

+

Amorpha herbacea

False Indigo

drier

12-60"

May-Jul, Jul-Oct

blue-white

+

Asclepias amplexicaulis

Milkweed

drier

16-40"

May-Jul, Jun-Aug

rose-purple

 

Asclepias tuberosa

Butterfly Weed

drier

8-32"

May-Aug, Aug-Sep

red-yellow

+

Aster concolor

Aster

drier

12-24"

Sep-Oct

violet,yellow

 

Aster dumosus

Bushy Aster

wet-dry

24-54"

Aug-Oct

whit-blue-lav

+

Aster lateriflorus

Starred Aster

drier

24-54"

Sep-Nov

white,orange

 

Aster patens

Aster

drier

12-48"

Sep-Oct

violet

 

Aster pilosus

White-topped Aster

drier

.6-1.5"

Sep-Nov

white,orange

 

Aster puniceus

Aster

wetter

36-80"

Sep-Oct

violet

 

Baptisia alba

False Indigo

drier

48"

Apr-May

white

+

Cacalia atriphicifolia

Pale Indian Plantain

drier

60-120"

Jun-Oct

white

 

Cassia fasciculata

Partridge Pea

drier

24"

Jul-Aug

yellow

 

Cassia nicitans

Wild Sensitive Plant

drier

4-20"

Jun-Oct, Jul-Nov

yellow

 

Chaerophylhym tainturieri

Wild Chervil

drier

8-36"

Apr-May

white

 

Coreopsis major

Greater Tickseed

drier

24-42"

May-Jul

yellow-red

+

Croton glandulosus

 

drier

4-24"

May-Oct

   

Desmodium dillenii (perplexum)

Tick-trefoil

drier

20-60"

Jul-Sep, Aug-Oct

purplish

 

Desmodium laevigatum

Tick-trefoil

drier

24-48"

Jun-Sep, Aug-Oct

pink-purple

 

Desmodium marilandicum

 

drier

24-60"

Jun-Sep, Aug-Oct

purplish

 

Desmodium paniculatum

Tick-trefoil

drier

24-48"

Jun-Sep, Aug-Oct

purplish

 

Diodia teres

Buttonweed

drier

6-24"

Jun-frost

white

 

Eclipta alba

 

wettest

4-40"

Jun-frost

white

 

Erigeron philadelphicus

Common Fleabane

drier

8-40"

Apr-Jun

lavender

+

Erigeron strigosus

Daisy Fleabane

drier

18-54"

May-Oct

white-lav

+

Eryngium prostratum

 

wettest

4-28"

May-Oct

blue

 

Eupatorium album

 

drier

16-32"

Jun-Sep

white

 

Eupatorium capillifolium

Dog Fennel

drier

36-78"

Sep-frost

white-purple

 

Eupatorium coelestinum

Hardy Ageratum

wetter

12-36"

Jul-Oct

blue-violet

+

Eupatorium fistulosum

Joe-Pye Weed

wettest

18-108"

Jul-Oct

pink-purple

+

Eupatorium hysspifolium

 

drier

24-42"

Jul-Oct

white

 

Eupatorium perfoliatum

Boneset

wettest

24-54"

Aug-Oct

white

+

Eupatorium serotinum

 

drier

24-78"

Aug-Oct

white

 

Euphorbia corollata

Flowering Spurge

drier

4-20"

May-Sep

white

 

Geranium carolinianum

 

drier

4-32"

Mar-Jun

pink

 

Gnaphalium helleri

 

drier

24-36"

Sep-Oct

white

 

Gnaphalium obtusifolium

Rabbit Tobacco/Everlasting

drier

24-36"

Aug-Oct

white

 

Haplopappus divaricatus

 

drier

24-66"

Aug-Oct

yellow

 

Hedeoma pulegioides

Pennyroyal

drier

4-18"

Jul-Oct

white-lav

 

Helenium autumnale

Sneeze Weed

wettest

24-78"

Sep-Oct

yellow

+

Helenium flexulosum

Sneeze Weed

wettest

16-40"

May-Aug

red-yellow

+

Helianthus angustifolius

Narrow-leaved Sunflower

wet-dry

36-78"

Jul-frost

yellow

+

Helianthus atrorubens

Dark-eyed Sunflower

drier

24-60"

Jul-Oct

purplish-red

+

Helianthus hirsutus

 

drier

36-66"

Jul-Oct

yellow

 

Helianthus microcephalus

 

drier

30-96"

Aug-Oct

yellow

 

Helianthus strumosus

Woodland Sunflower

drier

36-114"

Jun-Oct

yellow

+

Helianthus tuberosus

Jerusalem Artichoke

drier

36-120"

Jul-Oct

yellow

+

Heterotheca mariana

 

drier

8-36"

Jun-Oct

   

Heterotheca subaxillaris

Camphorweed

drier

12-60"

Jul-Oct

yellow

 

Hieraceum gronovii

Hawkweed

drier

12-36"

Jul-frost

yellow

 

Houstonia caerulea

Bluets

drier

2-7"

Apr-May, May-Jun

blue

+

Hypericum gentianoides

Pine Weed

drier

4-20"

Jul-Oct

yellow

+

Hypericum mutilum

Dwarf St. John's-wort

wettest

6-28"

Jun-Oct

yellow

 

Hypoxis hirsuta

Yellow Star Grass

drier

2-8'

Mar-Jun, May-Jul

yellow

+

Krigia virginica

Dwarf Dandelion

drier

6-12"

Mar-Jun

yellow

 

Lechea racemulosa

Pine Weed

drier

4-16"

Jun-Jul, Jul-Oct

red-maroon

 

Lespedeza hirta

Hairy Bush Clover

drier

48"

Aug-Oct, Sep-Nov

white

+

Lespedeza intermedia

Bush Clover

drier

8-40"

Jul-Sep, Aug-Nov

purplish

 

Lespedeza repens

Creeping Bush Clover

drier

12-32"

Jul-Sep, Aug-Nov

purplish

+

Lespedeza virginica

Slender Bush Clover

drier

12-36"

Jul-Sep, Aug-Nov

rose-purple

+

Liatris gramnifolia

Grassleaf Blazing Star

drier

60"

Oct-frost

lavender

+

Liatris microcephela

 

drier

40"

Jul-Sep, Sep-Oct

lavender

 

Liatris spicata

Gay Feather

wetter

12-72"

Jul-Sep

rose-purple

+

Linaria canadensis

Toad-flax

drier

6-28"

Mar-May

blue-purple

+

Lobelia cardinalis

Cardinal Flower

wettest

24-102"

Jul-Oct

scarlet

+

Lobelia inflata

Indian Tobacco

drier

4-40"

Jul-frost

lavender

 

Lobelia puberula

 

wet-dry

24-72"

Jul-Oct

violet

 

Lysimachia quadrifolia

Whorled Loosestrife

drier

12-40"

May-Jul, Aug-Oct

red, black

+

Monarda fistulosa

Wild Bergamot

drier

28-36"

Jun-Sep, Aug-Oct

pink

+

Monarda punctata

Dotted monarda

drier

12-36"

Jul-Sep, Sep-Oct

lavender

+

Oenothera biennis

Evening Primrose

drier

60"

Jun-Oct

yellow

+

Parthenium integrifolium

Wild Quinine

drier

24-48"

May-Aug

white

 

Penstemon canescens

Grey Beardtongue

drier

12-28"

May-Jul

pink-purple

+

Phlox carolina L.

 

drier

<30"

May-Jun

pink-purple

 

Polygala curtissii

Polygala

wetter

3-16"

Jun-Oct

pink-white

 

Polymnia uvedalia

Bear's Foot

drier

36-78"

Jul-Oct

yellow

 

Ptilimnium capillaceum

 

wetter

4-32"

May-Jul, Jul-Aug

white

 

Pycnanthemum incanum

Hoary Mint

drier

36-78"

Jun-Aug, Sept-Oct

white

+

Pycnanthemum teniufolium

Slender-leaved Mint

wetter

16-40"

Jun-Aug, Sep-Oct

white-pinkish

+

Pyrrohappus carolinianus

 

drier

12-36"

Apr-Jun

yellow

 

Rhexia virginica

Virginia Meadow Beauty

wetter

36"

May-Oct

rose-purple

+

Rhyncospora globularis

Beak Rush

drier

4-28"

Jun-Sep

reddish

 

Rudbeckia heliopsidis

 

drier

28-48"

Jul-Sep

yellow

 

Rudbeckia hirta

Black-eyed Susan

drier

16-40"

May-Jul

yellow

+

Rudbeckia fulgida

Black-eyed Susan

drier

28-48"

Aug-Oct

yellow

+

Rudbeckia laciniata

Cut-leaf Cone Flower

wetter

36-96"

Jul-Oct

yellow

+

Rumex hastatulus

Sorrel

drier

6-11"

Mar-May, Apr-Jun

pink, yellow

 

Sabatia angularis

Rose Pink

wetter

4-32"

Jul-Aug, Sep-Oct

pink

+

Salvia lyrata

Lyre-leaved Sage

drier

12-24"

Apr-May, May-Jul

blue-violet

 

Scutellaria integrifolia

Skullcap

drier

6-32"

May-Jul, Jul-Aug

blue-violet

+

Silene antirrhina

Sleepy Catchfly

drier

12-36"

Apr-Jul

purplish

 

Silphium compositum

Compass Plant

drier

36-156"

May-Sep

yellow

+

Silphium dentatum

 

drier

24-102"

May-Aug

yellow

 

Sisyrinchium angustifolium

Blue-eyed Grass

wet-dry

6-20"

Mar-Jun, May-Jul

blue

+

Solidago altissima(canadensis)

Tall Goldenrod

drier

36-108"

Sep-Oct

yellow

+

Solidago erecta

 

drier

32-60"

Aug-Oct

yellow

 

Solidago gigantea

Late Goldenrod

drier

24-84"

Aug-Nov

white-yellow

 

Solidago nemoralis

Common Goldenrod

drier

16-40"

Sep-frost

yellow

+

Solidago rugosa

Rough-stemmed Goldenrod

wet-dry

12-72"

Sep-Oct

yellow

+

Solidago speciosa

Showy Goldenrod

drier

40-80"

Sep-Oct

yellow

+

Stenanthium gramineum

Feather Bells

drier

24-60"

Jun-Sept, Aug-Oct

white

+

Teucrium canadense

Wood Sage

wetter

24-60"

Jun-Aug, Sep-Oct

pink

+

Thalictrum revolutum

Meadow Rue

drier

24-60"

May-Jul

whitish

+

Trichostema dichotomum

Bastard Pennyroyal

drier

4-32"

Aug-frost

blue-violet

 

Verbena urticifolia

 

wetter

40-100"

May-Nov

   

Verbesina alternifolia

Crown Beard

wettest

78-156"

Aug-Sep

yellow

 

Verbesina occidentalis

 

drier

78-120"

Aug-Oct

yellow

 

Verbesina virginica

 

drier

78-120"

Jul-Oct

white

 

Vernonia novaboracensis

New York Ironweed

wetter

24-78"

Jul-Sep, Aug-Oct

violet

+

Additional species, native to the Carolinas, that are not shown by Radford to be native to the Clemson area, might be included when considering the need to maximize showy species in some areas.  These species should include the following grasses and forbs.    

Grasses:  Andropogon ternarius, Aristida purpurascens, Erianthus giganteus, Panicum virgatum, Muhlenburgia capillaris, Setaria geniculata.

Forbs:  Agalinis fasciculata, Aquilegia canadensis, Baptisia australlis, Coreopsis lanceolata, Coreopsis tripteris, Dodecatheon meadia, Echinacea purpurea, Helianthus mollis, Liatris aspera, Liatris pycnostachya, Lilium superbum, Lobelia spicata, Lupinus perennis, Oenothera fruiticosa, Oenothera speciosa, Phlox glaberrina, Phlox pilosa, Rhexia mariana, Rudbeckia triloba, Salvia azurea, Tradescantia ohiensis, Verbena hastata, Verbena rigida, Verbena stricta, Vernonia angustifolia.

Rare species such as Echinacea pallida, Lotus helleri, and Helianthus schweinitzii, that are found in fire dependent savanna communities should be included to add additional interest to the meadow.  These species should be drawn from Appendix C.

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The Presettlement Piedmont Savanna - A Model For Landscape Design and Management - Philip Juras 1997
Table of Contents - Chapters: One - Two - Three - Four - Five - Six - Seven - Eight - Works Cited - Appendices: A - B - C - D - E