Chapter VII - Design, Restoration, and Management of a Piedmont
The site chosen for "demonstrating" the Piedmont savanna is a portion
of the South Carolina State Botanical Garden in Clemson, South Carolina.
(Figure 7.1) The site was chosen because it is located in the Piedmont,
has fairly typical conditions, is large enough, is easily accessible, and
is located in the Botanical Garden which strengthens its purpose as a model
landscape. It has been given the name "Burning Meadow".
Figure 7.1 Site of "Burning Meadow" at the South Carolina Botanical Garden
(photo by author).
This chapter describes issues and methods involved in the overlapping
activities of restoration design and management of a presettlement-like
savanna landscape in the modern Piedmont. Guidelines and specific aspects
of native plant community design, landscape restoration and management activities
developed by Darrel G. Morrison (Design), provide the framework and much
of the specific information in this application. Because there is an aesthetic
as well as ecological emphasis, a modified version of landscape "restoration",
will be used to describe related activities in this application, though
landscape "design" might be considered a more appropriate term by some.
Morrison offers the modified and more realistic version of "restoration" as:
"Reintroducing and re-establishing of community-like assemblages of native
species to sites which can reasonably be expected to sustain them, with
the resultant vegetation demonstrating aesthetic and dynamic characteristics
of the natural communities on which they are based." (Morrison, Design 41,42)
Because this restoration is very much concerned with aesthetics, methods
involved with native plant community design are interwoven with the following
restoration methods. These methods have been used as a structure and have
not been followed in order.
Methods Employed In Restoration Planning (Morrison, Design 44-56)
1. Goal identification.
2. Site inventory and analysis including:
soils - nutrients, texture, pH, moisture, and chemicals present.
topography - slope, aspect, and runoff behavior.
vegetation - on site and adjacent land, and vegetation history.
3. Identification of target communities based on environmental conditions,
human needs, and patches due to disturbances such as fire and windthrow.
4. Species selection based on restoration goals, dominant, prevalent, and
visual essence species, and the need for early successional species on disturbed
5. Selection of restoration strategies based on existing site conditions,
availability of seed or plants, financial resources, and landscape management
Restoration Design Goals
The overall goal of Burning Meadow is to create and maintain a landscape
that represents the history, aesthetics and ecology of the once common Piedmont
savanna. Design, restoration and management of the site as a Piedmont savanna
will be based on the ecological, aesthetic model discussed in this thesis
combined with considerations of site characteristics and human use of the
site. Design, restoration and management should, for the most part, reflect
the species composition, distribution patterns, and ecological functions
of a presettlement savanna as it might have occurred over typical (not shrink-swell)
Restoration Design Goals
1. Demonstrate Piedmont savanna aesthetic qualities and provide aesthetic
scenic enjoyment to visitors.
2. Provide natural and cultural history education.
3. Provide habitat for uncommon and rare plant species (including species
that are now uncommon or potentially extirpated due to fire suppression.)
4. Provide a model for research.
The site is located at the Southeast corner of the South Carolina State
Botanical Garden in Clemson, South Carolina. An inventory of its features,
described below, is shown in plan view in Figure 7.2. It is accessed from
the Botanical Garden parking lot by a gravel drive which borders 1/3 of
the site. Fescue turf and a wildflower meadow planting (a propagule source)
are the adjacent uses in the Botanical Garden. Adjacent on its wooded sides
are the University golf course and a creek. Nearby is Perimeter Road, the
campus, and a residential area. The former Seneca River (now Hartwell reservoir)
and a former Cherokee town site are within two miles.
The 15 acre site is between 670 and 745 feet above sea level and generally
faces Southeast with an average slope of 10% with steepest being >25% along
the creek, 15% along the drainage swale and the flattest averaging 6% toward
the back of the site. Except for the swale, which was wet at the road after
2.5 weeks without rain, most of the site is well drained.
USDA Soil Surveys for Pickens County, SC (USDA SCS, Pickens 54-57) show
soils are of the Cecil series, a deep, well drained soil
from granite, gneiss, and schist. Parent rock is high in potash, as is
subsoil. Cecil soils make up the majority of soils in Pickens county. It
is not similar to the shrink-swell Iredell soils that are associated with
the "Piedmont Prairie," though when more clayey, it can be droughty and
crack when dry. Infiltration is slow and runoff rapid, especially on slopes
where erosion can be a problem. Most of the original surface, or A horizon,
has been lost to erosion. Where the A horizon remains it is described as
yellowish-red, pH 5.5, sandy clay loam, with a weak, medium, subangular
blocky structure, and friable. Horizon B is similar in structure. Disintegrated
parent material (horizon C) is found at 44-60 inches.
Vegetation on the 6-7 acre site can be generally described as approximately
8 acres comprised of weedy old field with fescue and kudzu, and 7 acres
of 20-30 year old successional hardwoods and maturing hardwood stands. Existing
vegetation is described further on the site inventory sheet.
Recent vegetation history shows kudzu preventing woody growth in what
was, essentially, an old field in succession. Much of the open area of the
site appears to have been abandoned 20 - 30 years ago, with subsequent disturbances
to parts of it occurring as recently as 5 - 8 years ago. Aerial photographs
in the Soil Survey of 1972 show the open areas to have been agricultural.
From the early 1800s to the 1960s, it is likely that the site periodically
produced cotton and other crops, was occasionally abandoned, and was used
Pre-European settlement history on the site is largely speculative though
it is likely the site was heavily influenced by the nearby Cherokee population
for some time. Bartram, who may have passed quite near the site in the 1770s
while traveling up the Savanna and "Keowe"(Seneca River.) from Augusta to
the Cherokee Lands, describes area landscapes. In the area of Clarks Hill
Dam on the Savanna River:
the downs afford grass and various herbage: the vales and hills forest
trees and shrubs of various tribes... ...of herbacea a vast variety and
abundance, as Verbesina, Rudbeckia, Phaseolus, Tripsacum, Aconitum napellus,
Delphinium, Angelica lucida, Tradescantia, Actaea, Chelone, Glycine, Convallaria,
Mediola, Carduus, Bidens, Arum, Coreopsis, Circaea, Commelina, Aster, Solidago,
Eupatorium, Helianthus, and Silphium... (262)
In the area of Lake Hartwell along the Seneca River: ...the shrubs growing
about the tops of the more barren grassy hills, where large trees are few
and scattered, shew themselves to great advantage, and make a fine appearance.
Just north of the Clemson area:
...upon the grassy bases of the rising hills appeared the remains of a
town of the ancients. (272)
Even though the Cherokee population was decimated by disease during the
preceding decades (Silver, 1990), Bartram still found a landscape very much
influenced by humans and fire. The abandoned town sites he often describes
were in stages of old field succession and the landscape itself was changing
due to the reduction of Indian burning. His descriptions of open lands in
the area provides additional footing for the "restoration" of a savanna
community. It is reasonable to assume that 250 years ago the Botanical Garden
land may have been composed partly of grasslands as Bartram described, especially
due to its proximity to a Cherokee town. It is likely that the application
site in particular was in some savanna-like condition, though to what extent
it was open can only be guessed.
Restoration Design Considerations
In designing and restoring "natural" communities, there is a need to abstract
essential community characteristics in order to apply them to a given site,
taking into account its restrictions (Morrison, Design 3). This process
will be accomplished by combining information from the thesis chapters V
and VI, describing aesthetics and ecology of the Piedmont savanna, with
information from the site inventory and the user needs and functional requirements
identified in the project goals. The next step will be the drawing of a
Mass/Space Plan (Figure 7.3) which will be informed in part by the savanna
vegetation distribution patterns in Figure 6.7. The vegetation patterns
that emerge in the Mass/Space Plan will help to identify target communities
in the Planting Design Plan (Figure 7.4). These communities will reflect
natural patterns or zones related to soil, light, and moisture as well as
color, texture, and form. Potential tree and herb layer species selected
for the target communities in the Planting Design Plan are listed in Appendix
D and Appendix E. Strategies for implementation and management are discussed
in the next section Special attention should be paid to the visual characteristics
of the presettlement savanna. In order to demonstrate Piedmont savanna aesthetic
qualities, the design should include open views to accentuate the rolling
topography, distant tree lines and hills. Tree distribution patterns should
take the form of groves and peninsulas, with occasional areas of evenly
spaced trees included. Openness and species composition should be informed
by fineness of soil, slope exposure, and moisture, in addition to existing
vegetation. Sharp canopy edges can occur where the creek bank is becomes
steep. All other vegetation should reflect gradual distribution changes
in drifting patterns. Natural and cultural history education can be provided
with plantings and corresponding information on the "wild pea vines." These
plants, of potential Indian agricultural origins, can be represented by
including Phaseolus polystachios and Apios americana where soil conditions are favorable. Rare species such as Echinacea
pallida, usually found on more limiting soil conditions, should be included
and identified even though they are not necessarily native to the county.
While not shown as native to the county, such species may have been more
widely distributed before widespread fire suppression and thus should be
considered in species selection.
Figure 7.2 Site Inventory.
Figure 7.3 Mass/Space Plan
Figure 7.4 Planting Design Plan
There are other important factors of restoration design to consider that
have important implications on public perception. In his 1994 article "The
Urban Savanna: Reuniting Ecological Preference and Function" Gobster points
out several elements that are of great importance when considering restoration
or design of savanna landscapes. Design cues such as split rail fences,
showy forbs, mowed paths, tree framed views, and vegetative screens will
improve initial viewer response by demonstrating human stewardship and care
rather than a potential appearance of neglect sometimes associated with
reinitiating ecological processes. Context of the site will dictate the
type of design cues used, whether more or less formal. If design cues are
not enough, on-site signage, newsletters, and public notices encouraging
volunteer participation can make such sights as a fresh burn more appealing.
Burning Meadow application signage, concerned mainly with fire ecology and
Indian history, will play a critical role in natural and cultural history
education, while framed views, showy forbs and mowed paths will contribute
to the aesthetic value.
Activities involved in installing and maintaining ecological functions
in a natural savanna such as tree cutting, soil scarification, and burning,
can be perceived negatively by the viewer (Gobster 64-68). Because the Burning
Meadow site is based on functions of the presettlement savanna, strategies
for its implementation and management may be unsightly at times. Therefore
care must be taken to minimize the unsightly effects and to instill an aesthetic
based on ecological understanding. Besides design techniques already mentioned,
public perception can be influenced by involving people in guided nature
walks and restoration activities such as burning, and collecting seed. This
can have the effect of instilling greater appreciation for the site in particular
and an ecological aesthetic in general. As Gobster puts it: "The beauty
of the oak savanna often exhibits itself in subtle ways, and thus is more
likely to be discovered with knowledge of the plants and experience of ecological
processes over time." (69) Activities conducive to introducing public participation
and viewer involvement are mentioned in the implementation and management
In order to prepare for implementation of Burning Meadow, sources of propagules
must be identified, invasive exotic species must be identified on and around
the site, and a management plan to follow up implementation must be made.
Unique meadows, roadsides, and native gardens within the tri-county area
should be identified as possible noncommercial seed sources. Volunteers
should be organized for seed collection of these species using the potential
species list. Wild seed collection and seedling propagation should be commenced
well in advance of implementation. Seed production could be contracted out
in advance or commercially available seeds could be ordered near planting
time if funds are available.
Control of invasive exotics should begin as soon as possible since some
species need repeated treatments and others may be prevented from going
to seed. Possible treatments for the kudzu and fescue on the site include
close mowing, burning, and herbicide treatment. During the growing season
before planting, infested areas of the site can be treated with a non-persistent
herbicide followed a few weeks later with a combination of closely mowing
in fescue areas and burning everywhere else. Herbicide, and/or close mowing
might then be repeated to eventually eliminate selected species before the
growing season ends. Before burning, kudzu will need to be removed from
bordering tree branches so fire won't be conducted into the trees. Fire
breaks, including the existing road and creek, will need to be extended
around the site. Permission for burning should be obtained from the proper
authorities. An annual, non-persistent cover crop should be seeded if soil
is excessively exposed while waiting for grasses and forbs seeding. An alternative
scenario would involve only herbicide treatments, leaving the dead leaf
litter to cover the soil over the winter.
Debris piles on the site not consumed by fire will be removed and rough
areas will be smoothed with a tractor. The soil should be left as undisturbed
as possible, however, to deter erosion and preserve what soil structure
Creating savanna canopy structure will require, in part, the removal and
pruning of selected trees and understory as shown in the section drawing
in Figure 7.4. While fire could be used in a controlled though random manner
to accomplish this, the context of the site suggests manual selection and
removal of woody plants including herbicide application to stumps. Following
that, a controlled burn could be conducted if the ground plane needs further
cleaning up, though care should be taken if there is abundant slash. With
debris and invasives removed from the ground plane, all open areas can be
prepared for seeding. Just before seeding, the soil surface can be prepared
by lightly cultivating, dragging or raking the surface to promote seed-soil
contact. Deeper soil cultivation may be needed if there are severely compacted
soils, especially in visually prominent areas where rapid meadow development
Following preparation, seeding can occur in the fall or spring. Planting
zones should be flagged to guide seed placement. Various methods can be
employed for seed dispersal. Grasses will preferably be drill seeded with
a seed drill able to handle various sizes of seeds such as a Nesbitt or
Truax. 20 lb. p.l.s. (pure live seed) per acre should be distributed 10
lb. in one direction and 10 lb. in a perpendicular direction with seed mixes
matched with appropriate zones. Otherwise grasses can be broadcast at 20
lb. per acre into lightly cultivated soil. Because forb seeds can vary greatly
in size and costs they should be sown separately from the grasses with attention
given to design. Forb seeds will be hand or machine broadcast over the grasses
in appropriate zones at about 4 lb. p.l.s. per acre, while showy forb and
grass species may be seeded selectively by hand for a designed effect. A
medium such as moistened contractor sand will aid in even seed distribution
of both grasses and forbs. After seeding, soil should be lightly compacted
to ensure seed-soil contact. An alternative method for seeding involves
cultipacking the prepared soil in one direction, broadcasting seeds, then
cultipacking again in a perpendicular direction. Narrow ridges and valleys
created by the cultipacker causes seeding depths to vary randomly up to
3/4" in depth. Plugs of visually key species might be incorporated with
the seeding effort to produce some "show" in the early phases of the restoration.
After planting, a light mulch of native grass hay, pine straw or mulch fiber
should be applied over the bare soil to reduce soil exposure. A cover crop
of an inexpensive non-persistent cool season annual might also be used for
reducing erosion during the dormant season and/or early spring, and to provide
some cover to emerging warm season seedlings.
After a fall planting, cool season "weeds" that emerge over the winter
should be mown closely very early in the spring and clippings removed to
allow the soil to warm in the sun and promote germination. In the first
year the site may need mowing 2-4 times. The need for mowing will be determined
by closely monitoring annual weeds to prevent them from going to seed. For
instance, in the second month seeded areas might be mowed at 6 inches to
prevent annuals from seeding and to allow growing warm season species more
solar access. Mowing could be repeated at 8 - 10 inches in the mid-summer
and again in the fall or as needed. Watering at the rate of 1"/week may
be needed if a spring drought occurs but should be discontinued as plants
become established. During the second growing season spot treatments of
herbicide to aggressive invasives may be necessary, followed by replanting
of the area. Mowing at 6 - 8 inches may be necessary again in the spring
to favor warm season species, and possibly again in the summer. If enough
fuel is present in the early spring of the third year the site may be burned,
or, if not, mowed. From the third year on the site should be burned every
other year or so, at different times according to the management plan. No
other management of the ground plane should be necessary unless kudzu or
other invasives become reestablished, in which case they should be spot
treated with herbicide.
Few, if any, of the slow-growing savanna tree species will transplant
well as they become more mature. Proposed tree species should be added as
young, vigorous saplings to encourage their establishment in a potentially
difficult environment. If possible, balled and burlapped or potted specimens
should be planted in prepared holes either before or after ground plane
seeding, but not before major site preparation activities are completed.
The best time might be immediately after seeding. If planted trees are less
than three feet in height, they should be flagged to identify them in the
event that high grass needs mowing. During the first growing season, new
trees should be watered, especially during drought, to ensure their survival.
Other fire-tolerant tree species may be allowed to invade by themselves
over the years as long as they do not become too numerous. Small planted
trees and selected volunteer trees need to be protected with fencing if
grazing is introduced. Cane (Arundinaria gigantea), will be planted as plugs
or from pots in loose drifts along the creek and along the wettest drainages.
Cane is difficult to establish, so stands may be slow to come to fruition.
Landscape management is "the act of guiding the direction and rate of
landscape change", not the act of maintaining a static landscape (Morrison,
Design 58). Management activities prescribed to a restoration design should
emulate the natural processes of the community being restored and suppress
or eliminate species exotic to that community (Morrison, Design 5).
Just as in the initial installation, management practices that bring about
ecological integrity, such as tree removal and burning can have negative
aesthetic effects (Gobster 66). Because this site is a visible feature of
a botanical garden where appearance is important, care must be taken to
minimize unpopular effects. Of the tools used in managing the site, fire
has the greatest potential for being most problematic in terms of public
perception as well as being most effective for management. Public awareness
and involvement may be critical in guaranteeing its continued use. Viewers
and participants in the project should also be aware that the Piedmont savanna,
with its often slow-growing species, is a fire-dependent community that
will probably take a long time to mature.
Methods Employed In Management Planning (Morrison, Design 74-87)
1. Management goals establishment.
2. Site inventory and analysis. (mainly of vegetation structure and composition)
3. Identification of homogeneous units which are similar in environmental
characteristics and botanical composition.
4. Identification of management units based on management need plus homogenous
5. Identification of management objectives by management unit.
6. Identification of management strategy by management unit.
7. Identification and selection of methods or tools to accomplish management
8. Implementation of the management plan based on priorities and resources.
9. Monitoring of changes to evaluate effectiveness.
10. Adjustment of management plan based on monitoring.
In general, management activities should emulate the natural processes
of the Piedmont savanna, while allowing for human needs on the site and
suppressing species exotic to the savanna community.
1. The site will be managed to reflect the preferred aesthetic attributes
of the Piedmont savanna.
2. Part of the total area will be managed to encourage showy species.
3. A composition of 40 - 70 species per acre in the ground layer will be
4. Tree species and distribution more typical to the Piedmont savanna will
be favored over time, while non-typical trees will gradually be removed.
5. Exotic species will be suppressed or eliminated within the perimeter
6. The site will host some rare and unusual species appropriate to the community.
7. Management practices will be coordinated with educational programs and
Management Units, Objectives, Strategies, and Methods
Examination of the site inventory and the site design reveals areas which
have similar environmental and floristic characteristics. Management needs,
as informed by the goals, are combined with these homogeneous areas to define Management
Units (Figure 7.5). These units include the Open Meadow, Open Savanna Woodland,
Savanna Woodland, Canebrake, and Creek Bluff. Management objectives, strategies,
and methods will be assigned to each of the defined units as shown below.
Management strategies to be employed in each unit will at first emphasize
modification of existing species followed by the acceleration of the development
of the ground layer, then the deceleration or suspension of succession.
Management methods for modifying existing vegetation include: plant pulling,
digging, cutting, spray application and stump painting of herbicide, and
potentially fire. Methods used in accelerating the ground layer include
planting and watering. Methods used for suspending succession include fire,
mowing, cutting and potentially grazing.
Figure 7.5 Management Units Plan
Vegetative cover of at least 85% consisting of at least 80% grasses should
be maintained. 95% of woody vegetation greater than 2-3 feet high should
be eliminated unless planted. Exotic species should be eliminated if possible.
The designated area for showy species should have a high ratio of showy
forbs and 80% grasses.
The meadow will be maintained as a climax prairie type community allowing
for species to migrate as they prefer within the site while maintaining
an abundance of showy species in the appropriate area.
To maintain it as a climax community, burning of the meadow should occur
at an average frequency of every 2 years; sometimes in consecutive years
and sometimes every 3 years. Burns on those years should occur at different
times of the early spring and occasionally in the summer and late fall,
so as not to favor any particular species. If woody invasions are persistent
in areas, late summer burning of that area may be appropriate. Occasional
auto travel of perimeter road should keep kudzu from re-invading. If monitoring
after 5 years shows burning to have inappropriate effects such as favoring
single species, or allowing woody development, then burning frequencies
and timing might be rescheduled. If burning is not possible, then mowing
once or twice a year at a height of 6" or greater must become the limiting
factor to succession. Selective cutting with stump application of herbicide,
and selective wick or spray application of herbicide may be needed if invasives
are problematic. Following eradication procedures, seeding and/or transplanting
desired species may be necessary if propagules are not already present.
Fire frequency should be adjusted to allow establishment of desired species.
Open Savanna Woodland
An open savanna woodland canopy cover grading between 0-50%, sometimes tightly
grouped, no woody understory cover other than a few oak grubs, and 30-85%
ground layer cover of mainly grasses should be maintained. Invasive species
should be eliminated if possible.
Use controlled burning to maintain a glade-like aspect while allowing planted
trees to mature. An open, clean understory up to at least 6 -10 feet, and
trunks free of low branches should be maintained. Also allow some successional
species and grubs to develop where they do not block views. Encourage modification
of species composition, especially in the ground layer to fire- and part-shade-tolerant
Low intensity controlled burning should be conducted as an extension of
open meadow burning. Lighter fuel loads under trees should keep burned areas
patchy; however planted trees should be protected from fire when immature
by removing excessive fuel from around them. In some areas summer fires
should be used to kill successional saplings while in other places oak grubs
should be allowed to develop. Where fire breaks are necessary they can double
as visitor paths. Mowing almost annually in the early spring and, if needed,
in the late summer may be substituted if burning is not permitted. Kudzu
may have to be treated with herbicide if it invades from perimeter areas.
If monitoring after 5 years shows burning or mowing to have inadequate effects
on modifying species and maintaining an open canopy and understory then
other means may be employed, such as selective cutting of woody species,
bush hogging, selective cutting with stump application of herbicide, or
selective wick or spray application of herbicide. Also browsing animals
such as cows might be introduced for a brief period confined by temporary
fencing. Following eradication procedures, seeding and/or transplanting
desired species into bare patches may be necessary if propagules are not
already present. Fire frequency should be adjusted to allow establishment
of desired species in such areas.
Canopy cover of 50-85% and understory cover of 5% or less and a sparse ground
cover of mainly grasses should be maintained. Invasive species should be
eliminated if possible. An open, clean understory up to at least 6 -10 feet,
and trunks free of low branches should be maintained.
Maintain and encourage fire tolerant native species in canopy, sub-canopy,
understory, and ground layer. Without creating excessively large canopy
gaps, gradually reduce inappropriate species, such as water oak and beech,
to a minority, especially in drier areas. Allow mainly fire tolerant species
such as post oak, red oak and shortleaf pine to mature and fill spaces where
inappropriate species have been removed. Encourage the appearance of even
agedness if possible.
Low intensity burning, as an occasional extension (every 3-7 years) of open
meadow burning, that does not harm canopy species should be effective at
maintaining a mostly open understory and at modifying ground layer species.
If monitoring after 5 years shows burning to have too great an impact on
canopy trees, frequency and intensity should be reduced. . If monitoring
after 5 years shows inadequate effects on modifying species and opening
understory then other means may be employed, such as selective cutting of
canopy species and removal of slash, bush hogging, selective cutting with
stump application of herbicide, or selective wick or spray application of
herbicide. Browsers may be introduced for a brief period to open the understory.
Following eradication procedures, seeding and/or transplanting desired species
may be necessary if propagules are not already present. Fire frequency should
be adjusted to allow establishment of desired species.
Vegetative cover of at least 85% consisting of at least 80% Arundinaria
gigantea should be maintained over moist areas. Occasional trees and patches
of wet meadow may invade.
The Canebrake will be encouraged and maintained by periodic burning. Cane
will be allowed to migrate and/or spread as it prefers within the site.
Establishment of cane may be slow so care must be taken in judging the success
of management activities. If unwanted species outcompete the cane while
it is getting established, manual methods such as pulling and cutting should
be employed to free up cane plants. To maintain it as a climax community,
burning of the canebrake could occur at an average frequency of every 3-7
years or more often especially in areas where it grades into meadow. Burning
may be done in concert with the open meadow burning.
A well developed canopy cover representative of a lower slope mesic forest
with its accompaniment of sub-canopy, understory, and ground layer should
be maintained. However, the lower layers of vegetation should be more open
than usually occurs in such a community. Invasive species should be eliminated
Encourage some fire tolerant species to invade but maintain essentially
as is with fewer exotic invasives.
Very infrequent low intensity burning can be combined with manual removal
of dense understory and invasive species.
It should be mentioned that once the various management activities have
begun to bring about the desired visual and ecological characteristics to
the various management units, if possible it would be desirable to treat
the whole site as one fire compartment as it might have been in the presettlement
landscape. Whether or not this is a viable management option might be determined
by experimenting and monitoring.
Implementation Of Management Plan
The state forestry commission may offer controlled burning as a service,
or the appropriate department of the University might be contacted. In any
case, burning must be supervised by qualified individuals. Volunteers may
be needed and should be encouraged as part of the education process. Burning
may be most appropriate on weekends when coordinated with educational programs
and public involvement. Mowing, if necessary, should be done by informed
botanical garden staff according to the management plan. Staff may also
be responsible for invasive species management, although this is an area
appropriate for volunteer participation. If important or rare plant material
becomes available at some point, then, for a time, introducing it to the
site may become the priority of management. Once established (after 3 years)
the site should require little management; if, however, monitoring for invasives
is not done, and the burning/mowing plans are not followed, a second restoration
of the site would be required.
Monitoring And Modifying
Botanical garden staff may be involved in monitoring, though this area
may be most appropriate for interested scientists or professionals. Volunteers
and University students in related studies could also be enlisted to perform
quadrat layout, inventory and analysis. If monitoring reveals inadequate
performance then modification of management goals, objectives, strategies
or methods may be necessary. Monitoring will also be necessary to collect
useful information for any research associated with the project.
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