Philip Juras - MLA Thesis 1997  
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The Presettlement Piedmont Savanna - A Model For Landscape Design and Management - Philip Juras 1997 (pdf format)
Table of Contents - Chapters: One - Two - Three - Four - Five - Six - Seven - Eight - Works Cited - Appendices: A - B - C - D - E

Chapter VII - Design, Restoration, and Management of a Piedmont Savanna


The site chosen for "demonstrating" the Piedmont savanna is a portion of the South Carolina State Botanical Garden in Clemson, South Carolina. (Figure 7.1) The site was chosen because it is located in the Piedmont, has fairly typical conditions, is large enough, is easily accessible, and is located in the Botanical Garden which strengthens its purpose as a model landscape. It has been given the name "Burning Meadow".

Figure 7.1 Site of "Burning Meadow" at the South Carolina Botanical Garden (photo by author).

This chapter describes issues and methods involved in the overlapping activities of restoration design and management of a presettlement-like savanna landscape in the modern Piedmont. Guidelines and specific aspects of native plant community design, landscape restoration and management activities developed by Darrel G. Morrison (Design), provide the framework and much of the specific information in this application. Because there is an aesthetic as well as ecological emphasis, a modified version of landscape "restoration", will be used to describe related activities in this application, though landscape "design" might be considered a more appropriate term by some. Morrison offers the modified and more realistic version of "restoration" as:

"Reintroducing and re-establishing of community-like assemblages of native species to sites which can reasonably be expected to sustain them, with the resultant vegetation demonstrating aesthetic and dynamic characteristics of the natural communities on which they are based." (Morrison, Design 41,42)

Restoration Design

Because this restoration is very much concerned with aesthetics, methods involved with native plant community design are interwoven with the following restoration methods. These methods have been used as a structure and have not been followed in order.

Methods Employed In Restoration Planning (Morrison, Design 44-56)

1. Goal identification.
2. Site inventory and analysis including:
soils - nutrients, texture, pH, moisture, and chemicals present.
topography - slope, aspect, and runoff behavior.
vegetation - on site and adjacent land, and vegetation history.
3. Identification of target communities based on environmental conditions, human needs, and patches due to disturbances such as fire and windthrow.
4. Species selection based on restoration goals, dominant, prevalent, and visual essence species, and the need for early successional species on disturbed sites.
5. Selection of restoration strategies based on existing site conditions, availability of seed or plants, financial resources, and landscape management prospects.

Restoration Design Goals

The overall goal of Burning Meadow is to create and maintain a landscape that represents the history, aesthetics and ecology of the once common Piedmont savanna. Design, restoration and management of the site as a Piedmont savanna will be based on the ecological, aesthetic model discussed in this thesis combined with considerations of site characteristics and human use of the site. Design, restoration and management should, for the most part, reflect the species composition, distribution patterns, and ecological functions of a presettlement savanna as it might have occurred over typical (not shrink-swell) soils.

Restoration Design Goals

1. Demonstrate Piedmont savanna aesthetic qualities and provide aesthetic scenic enjoyment to visitors.
2. Provide natural and cultural history education.
3. Provide habitat for uncommon and rare plant species (including species that are now uncommon or potentially extirpated due to fire suppression.)
4. Provide a model for research.

Site Inventory

The site is located at the Southeast corner of the South Carolina State Botanical Garden in Clemson, South Carolina. An inventory of its features, described below, is shown in plan view in Figure 7.2. It is accessed from the Botanical Garden parking lot by a gravel drive which borders 1/3 of the site. Fescue turf and a wildflower meadow planting (a propagule source) are the adjacent uses in the Botanical Garden. Adjacent on its wooded sides are the University golf course and a creek. Nearby is Perimeter Road, the campus, and a residential area. The former Seneca River (now Hartwell reservoir) and a former Cherokee town site are within two miles.

The 15 acre site is between 670 and 745 feet above sea level and generally faces Southeast with an average slope of 10% with steepest being >25% along the creek, 15% along the drainage swale and the flattest averaging 6% toward the back of the site. Except for the swale, which was wet at the road after 2.5 weeks without rain, most of the site is well drained.

USDA Soil Surveys for Pickens County, SC (USDA SCS, Pickens 54-57) show soils are of the Cecil series, a deep, well drained soil

from granite, gneiss, and schist. Parent rock is high in potash, as is subsoil. Cecil soils make up the majority of soils in Pickens county. It is not similar to the shrink-swell Iredell soils that are associated with the "Piedmont Prairie," though when more clayey, it can be droughty and crack when dry. Infiltration is slow and runoff rapid, especially on slopes where erosion can be a problem. Most of the original surface, or A horizon, has been lost to erosion. Where the A horizon remains it is described as yellowish-red, pH 5.5, sandy clay loam, with a weak, medium, subangular blocky structure, and friable. Horizon B is similar in structure. Disintegrated parent material (horizon C) is found at 44-60 inches.

Vegetation on the 6-7 acre site can be generally described as approximately 8 acres comprised of weedy old field with fescue and kudzu, and 7 acres of 20-30 year old successional hardwoods and maturing hardwood stands. Existing vegetation is described further on the site inventory sheet.

Recent vegetation history shows kudzu preventing woody growth in what was, essentially, an old field in succession. Much of the open area of the site appears to have been abandoned 20 - 30 years ago, with subsequent disturbances to parts of it occurring as recently as 5 - 8 years ago. Aerial photographs in the Soil Survey of 1972 show the open areas to have been agricultural. From the early 1800s to the 1960s, it is likely that the site periodically produced cotton and other crops, was occasionally abandoned, and was used as pasture.

Pre-European settlement history on the site is largely speculative though it is likely the site was heavily influenced by the nearby Cherokee population for some time. Bartram, who may have passed quite near the site in the 1770s while traveling up the Savanna and "Keowe"(Seneca River.) from Augusta to the Cherokee Lands, describes area landscapes. In the area of Clarks Hill Dam on the Savanna River:

the downs afford grass and various herbage: the vales and hills forest trees and shrubs of various tribes... ...of herbacea a vast variety and abundance, as Verbesina, Rudbeckia, Phaseolus, Tripsacum, Aconitum napellus, Delphinium, Angelica lucida, Tradescantia, Actaea, Chelone, Glycine, Convallaria, Mediola, Carduus, Bidens, Arum, Coreopsis, Circaea, Commelina, Aster, Solidago, Eupatorium, Helianthus, and Silphium... (262)

In the area of Lake Hartwell along the Seneca River: ...the shrubs growing about the tops of the more barren grassy hills, where large trees are few and scattered, shew themselves to great advantage, and make a fine appearance. (268)

Just north of the Clemson area:

...upon the grassy bases of the rising hills appeared the remains of a town of the ancients. (272)

Even though the Cherokee population was decimated by disease during the preceding decades (Silver, 1990), Bartram still found a landscape very much influenced by humans and fire. The abandoned town sites he often describes were in stages of old field succession and the landscape itself was changing due to the reduction of Indian burning. His descriptions of open lands in the area provides additional footing for the "restoration" of a savanna community. It is reasonable to assume that 250 years ago the Botanical Garden land may have been composed partly of grasslands as Bartram described, especially due to its proximity to a Cherokee town. It is likely that the application site in particular was in some savanna-like condition, though to what extent it was open can only be guessed.

Restoration Design Considerations

In designing and restoring "natural" communities, there is a need to abstract essential community characteristics in order to apply them to a given site, taking into account its restrictions (Morrison, Design 3). This process will be accomplished by combining information from the thesis chapters V and VI, describing aesthetics and ecology of the Piedmont savanna, with information from the site inventory and the user needs and functional requirements identified in the project goals. The next step will be the drawing of a Mass/Space Plan (Figure 7.3) which will be informed in part by the savanna vegetation distribution patterns in Figure 6.7. The vegetation patterns that emerge in the Mass/Space Plan will help to identify target communities in the Planting Design Plan (Figure 7.4). These communities will reflect natural patterns or zones related to soil, light, and moisture as well as color, texture, and form. Potential tree and herb layer species selected for the target communities in the Planting Design Plan are listed in Appendix D and Appendix E. Strategies for implementation and management are discussed in the next section Special attention should be paid to the visual characteristics of the presettlement savanna. In order to demonstrate Piedmont savanna aesthetic qualities, the design should include open views to accentuate the rolling topography, distant tree lines and hills. Tree distribution patterns should take the form of groves and peninsulas, with occasional areas of evenly spaced trees included. Openness and species composition should be informed by fineness of soil, slope exposure, and moisture, in addition to existing vegetation. Sharp canopy edges can occur where the creek bank is becomes steep. All other vegetation should reflect gradual distribution changes in drifting patterns. Natural and cultural history education can be provided with plantings and corresponding information on the "wild pea vines." These plants, of potential Indian agricultural origins, can be represented by including Phaseolus polystachios and Apios americana where soil conditions are favorable. Rare species such as Echinacea pallida, usually found on more limiting soil conditions, should be included and identified even though they are not necessarily native to the county. While not shown as native to the county, such species may have been more widely distributed before widespread fire suppression and thus should be considered in species selection.

Figure 7.2 Site Inventory.

Figure 7.3 Mass/Space Plan

Figure 7.4 Planting Design Plan

There are other important factors of restoration design to consider that have important implications on public perception. In his 1994 article "The Urban Savanna: Reuniting Ecological Preference and Function" Gobster points out several elements that are of great importance when considering restoration or design of savanna landscapes. Design cues such as split rail fences, showy forbs, mowed paths, tree framed views, and vegetative screens will improve initial viewer response by demonstrating human stewardship and care rather than a potential appearance of neglect sometimes associated with reinitiating ecological processes. Context of the site will dictate the type of design cues used, whether more or less formal. If design cues are not enough, on-site signage, newsletters, and public notices encouraging volunteer participation can make such sights as a fresh burn more appealing. Burning Meadow application signage, concerned mainly with fire ecology and Indian history, will play a critical role in natural and cultural history education, while framed views, showy forbs and mowed paths will contribute to the aesthetic value.

Site Preparation

Activities involved in installing and maintaining ecological functions in a natural savanna such as tree cutting, soil scarification, and burning, can be perceived negatively by the viewer (Gobster 64-68). Because the Burning Meadow site is based on functions of the presettlement savanna, strategies for its implementation and management may be unsightly at times. Therefore care must be taken to minimize the unsightly effects and to instill an aesthetic based on ecological understanding. Besides design techniques already mentioned, public perception can be influenced by involving people in guided nature walks and restoration activities such as burning, and collecting seed. This can have the effect of instilling greater appreciation for the site in particular and an ecological aesthetic in general. As Gobster puts it: "The beauty of the oak savanna often exhibits itself in subtle ways, and thus is more likely to be discovered with knowledge of the plants and experience of ecological processes over time." (69) Activities conducive to introducing public participation and viewer involvement are mentioned in the implementation and management process.

In order to prepare for implementation of Burning Meadow, sources of propagules must be identified, invasive exotic species must be identified on and around the site, and a management plan to follow up implementation must be made. Unique meadows, roadsides, and native gardens within the tri-county area should be identified as possible noncommercial seed sources. Volunteers should be organized for seed collection of these species using the potential species list. Wild seed collection and seedling propagation should be commenced well in advance of implementation. Seed production could be contracted out in advance or commercially available seeds could be ordered near planting time if funds are available.

Control of invasive exotics should begin as soon as possible since some species need repeated treatments and others may be prevented from going to seed. Possible treatments for the kudzu and fescue on the site include close mowing, burning, and herbicide treatment. During the growing season before planting, infested areas of the site can be treated with a non-persistent herbicide followed a few weeks later with a combination of closely mowing in fescue areas and burning everywhere else. Herbicide, and/or close mowing might then be repeated to eventually eliminate selected species before the growing season ends. Before burning, kudzu will need to be removed from bordering tree branches so fire won't be conducted into the trees. Fire breaks, including the existing road and creek, will need to be extended around the site. Permission for burning should be obtained from the proper authorities. An annual, non-persistent cover crop should be seeded if soil is excessively exposed while waiting for grasses and forbs seeding. An alternative scenario would involve only herbicide treatments, leaving the dead leaf litter to cover the soil over the winter.

Debris piles on the site not consumed by fire will be removed and rough areas will be smoothed with a tractor. The soil should be left as undisturbed as possible, however, to deter erosion and preserve what soil structure there is.

Creating savanna canopy structure will require, in part, the removal and pruning of selected trees and understory as shown in the section drawing in Figure 7.4. While fire could be used in a controlled though random manner to accomplish this, the context of the site suggests manual selection and removal of woody plants including herbicide application to stumps. Following that, a controlled burn could be conducted if the ground plane needs further cleaning up, though care should be taken if there is abundant slash. With debris and invasives removed from the ground plane, all open areas can be prepared for seeding. Just before seeding, the soil surface can be prepared by lightly cultivating, dragging or raking the surface to promote seed-soil contact. Deeper soil cultivation may be needed if there are severely compacted soils, especially in visually prominent areas where rapid meadow development is desired.

Site Installation

Following preparation, seeding can occur in the fall or spring. Planting zones should be flagged to guide seed placement. Various methods can be employed for seed dispersal. Grasses will preferably be drill seeded with a seed drill able to handle various sizes of seeds such as a Nesbitt or Truax. 20 lb. p.l.s. (pure live seed) per acre should be distributed 10 lb. in one direction and 10 lb. in a perpendicular direction with seed mixes matched with appropriate zones. Otherwise grasses can be broadcast at 20 lb. per acre into lightly cultivated soil. Because forb seeds can vary greatly in size and costs they should be sown separately from the grasses with attention given to design. Forb seeds will be hand or machine broadcast over the grasses in appropriate zones at about 4 lb. p.l.s. per acre, while showy forb and grass species may be seeded selectively by hand for a designed effect. A medium such as moistened contractor sand will aid in even seed distribution of both grasses and forbs. After seeding, soil should be lightly compacted to ensure seed-soil contact. An alternative method for seeding involves cultipacking the prepared soil in one direction, broadcasting seeds, then cultipacking again in a perpendicular direction. Narrow ridges and valleys created by the cultipacker causes seeding depths to vary randomly up to 3/4" in depth. Plugs of visually key species might be incorporated with the seeding effort to produce some "show" in the early phases of the restoration. After planting, a light mulch of native grass hay, pine straw or mulch fiber should be applied over the bare soil to reduce soil exposure. A cover crop of an inexpensive non-persistent cool season annual might also be used for reducing erosion during the dormant season and/or early spring, and to provide some cover to emerging warm season seedlings.

After a fall planting, cool season "weeds" that emerge over the winter should be mown closely very early in the spring and clippings removed to allow the soil to warm in the sun and promote germination. In the first year the site may need mowing 2-4 times. The need for mowing will be determined by closely monitoring annual weeds to prevent them from going to seed. For instance, in the second month seeded areas might be mowed at 6 inches to prevent annuals from seeding and to allow growing warm season species more solar access. Mowing could be repeated at 8 - 10 inches in the mid-summer and again in the fall or as needed. Watering at the rate of 1"/week may be needed if a spring drought occurs but should be discontinued as plants become established. During the second growing season spot treatments of herbicide to aggressive invasives may be necessary, followed by replanting of the area. Mowing at 6 - 8 inches may be necessary again in the spring to favor warm season species, and possibly again in the summer. If enough fuel is present in the early spring of the third year the site may be burned, or, if not, mowed. From the third year on the site should be burned every other year or so, at different times according to the management plan. No other management of the ground plane should be necessary unless kudzu or other invasives become reestablished, in which case they should be spot treated with herbicide.

Few, if any, of the slow-growing savanna tree species will transplant well as they become more mature. Proposed tree species should be added as young, vigorous saplings to encourage their establishment in a potentially difficult environment. If possible, balled and burlapped or potted specimens should be planted in prepared holes either before or after ground plane seeding, but not before major site preparation activities are completed. The best time might be immediately after seeding. If planted trees are less than three feet in height, they should be flagged to identify them in the event that high grass needs mowing. During the first growing season, new trees should be watered, especially during drought, to ensure their survival. Other fire-tolerant tree species may be allowed to invade by themselves over the years as long as they do not become too numerous. Small planted trees and selected volunteer trees need to be protected with fencing if grazing is introduced. Cane (Arundinaria gigantea), will be planted as plugs or from pots in loose drifts along the creek and along the wettest drainages. Cane is difficult to establish, so stands may be slow to come to fruition.

Management Considerations

Landscape management is "the act of guiding the direction and rate of landscape change", not the act of maintaining a static landscape (Morrison, Design 58). Management activities prescribed to a restoration design should emulate the natural processes of the community being restored and suppress or eliminate species exotic to that community (Morrison, Design 5).

Just as in the initial installation, management practices that bring about ecological integrity, such as tree removal and burning can have negative aesthetic effects (Gobster 66). Because this site is a visible feature of a botanical garden where appearance is important, care must be taken to minimize unpopular effects. Of the tools used in managing the site, fire has the greatest potential for being most problematic in terms of public perception as well as being most effective for management. Public awareness and involvement may be critical in guaranteeing its continued use. Viewers and participants in the project should also be aware that the Piedmont savanna, with its often slow-growing species, is a fire-dependent community that will probably take a long time to mature.

Methods Employed In Management Planning (Morrison, Design 74-87)

1. Management goals establishment.
2. Site inventory and analysis. (mainly of vegetation structure and composition)
3. Identification of homogeneous units which are similar in environmental characteristics and botanical composition.
4. Identification of management units based on management need plus homogenous units.
5. Identification of management objectives by management unit.
6. Identification of management strategy by management unit.
7. Identification and selection of methods or tools to accomplish management objectives.
8. Implementation of the management plan based on priorities and resources.
9. Monitoring of changes to evaluate effectiveness.
10. Adjustment of management plan based on monitoring.

Management Goals

In general, management activities should emulate the natural processes of the Piedmont savanna, while allowing for human needs on the site and suppressing species exotic to the savanna community.

Management Goals

1. The site will be managed to reflect the preferred aesthetic attributes of the Piedmont savanna.
2. Part of the total area will be managed to encourage showy species.
3. A composition of 40 - 70 species per acre in the ground layer will be maintained.
4. Tree species and distribution more typical to the Piedmont savanna will be favored over time, while non-typical trees will gradually be removed.
5. Exotic species will be suppressed or eliminated within the perimeter if possible.
6. The site will host some rare and unusual species appropriate to the community.
7. Management practices will be coordinated with educational programs and volunteer participation.

Management Units, Objectives, Strategies, and Methods

Examination of the site inventory and the site design reveals areas which have similar environmental and floristic characteristics. Management needs, as informed by the goals, are combined with these homogeneous areas to define Management Units (Figure 7.5). These units include the Open Meadow, Open Savanna Woodland, Savanna Woodland, Canebrake, and Creek Bluff. Management objectives, strategies, and methods will be assigned to each of the defined units as shown below. Management strategies to be employed in each unit will at first emphasize modification of existing species followed by the acceleration of the development of the ground layer, then the deceleration or suspension of succession. Management methods for modifying existing vegetation include: plant pulling, digging, cutting, spray application and stump painting of herbicide, and potentially fire. Methods used in accelerating the ground layer include planting and watering. Methods used for suspending succession include fire, mowing, cutting and potentially grazing.

Figure 7.5 Management Units Plan

Open Meadow

Vegetative cover of at least 85% consisting of at least 80% grasses should be maintained. 95% of woody vegetation greater than 2-3 feet high should be eliminated unless planted. Exotic species should be eliminated if possible. The designated area for showy species should have a high ratio of showy forbs and 80% grasses.

The meadow will be maintained as a climax prairie type community allowing for species to migrate as they prefer within the site while maintaining an abundance of showy species in the appropriate area.

To maintain it as a climax community, burning of the meadow should occur at an average frequency of every 2 years; sometimes in consecutive years and sometimes every 3 years. Burns on those years should occur at different times of the early spring and occasionally in the summer and late fall, so as not to favor any particular species. If woody invasions are persistent in areas, late summer burning of that area may be appropriate. Occasional auto travel of perimeter road should keep kudzu from re-invading. If monitoring after 5 years shows burning to have inappropriate effects such as favoring single species, or allowing woody development, then burning frequencies and timing might be rescheduled. If burning is not possible, then mowing once or twice a year at a height of 6" or greater must become the limiting factor to succession. Selective cutting with stump application of herbicide, and selective wick or spray application of herbicide may be needed if invasives are problematic. Following eradication procedures, seeding and/or transplanting desired species may be necessary if propagules are not already present. Fire frequency should be adjusted to allow establishment of desired species.

Open Savanna Woodland

An open savanna woodland canopy cover grading between 0-50%, sometimes tightly grouped, no woody understory cover other than a few oak grubs, and 30-85% ground layer cover of mainly grasses should be maintained. Invasive species should be eliminated if possible.

Use controlled burning to maintain a glade-like aspect while allowing planted trees to mature. An open, clean understory up to at least 6 -10 feet, and trunks free of low branches should be maintained. Also allow some successional species and grubs to develop where they do not block views. Encourage modification of species composition, especially in the ground layer to fire- and part-shade-tolerant natives.

Low intensity controlled burning should be conducted as an extension of open meadow burning. Lighter fuel loads under trees should keep burned areas patchy; however planted trees should be protected from fire when immature by removing excessive fuel from around them. In some areas summer fires should be used to kill successional saplings while in other places oak grubs should be allowed to develop. Where fire breaks are necessary they can double as visitor paths. Mowing almost annually in the early spring and, if needed, in the late summer may be substituted if burning is not permitted. Kudzu may have to be treated with herbicide if it invades from perimeter areas. If monitoring after 5 years shows burning or mowing to have inadequate effects on modifying species and maintaining an open canopy and understory then other means may be employed, such as selective cutting of woody species, bush hogging, selective cutting with stump application of herbicide, or selective wick or spray application of herbicide. Also browsing animals such as cows might be introduced for a brief period confined by temporary fencing. Following eradication procedures, seeding and/or transplanting desired species into bare patches may be necessary if propagules are not already present. Fire frequency should be adjusted to allow establishment of desired species in such areas.

Savanna Woodland

Canopy cover of 50-85% and understory cover of 5% or less and a sparse ground cover of mainly grasses should be maintained. Invasive species should be eliminated if possible. An open, clean understory up to at least 6 -10 feet, and trunks free of low branches should be maintained.

Maintain and encourage fire tolerant native species in canopy, sub-canopy, understory, and ground layer. Without creating excessively large canopy gaps, gradually reduce inappropriate species, such as water oak and beech, to a minority, especially in drier areas. Allow mainly fire tolerant species such as post oak, red oak and shortleaf pine to mature and fill spaces where inappropriate species have been removed. Encourage the appearance of even agedness if possible.

Low intensity burning, as an occasional extension (every 3-7 years) of open meadow burning, that does not harm canopy species should be effective at maintaining a mostly open understory and at modifying ground layer species. If monitoring after 5 years shows burning to have too great an impact on canopy trees, frequency and intensity should be reduced. . If monitoring after 5 years shows inadequate effects on modifying species and opening understory then other means may be employed, such as selective cutting of canopy species and removal of slash, bush hogging, selective cutting with stump application of herbicide, or selective wick or spray application of herbicide. Browsers may be introduced for a brief period to open the understory. Following eradication procedures, seeding and/or transplanting desired species may be necessary if propagules are not already present. Fire frequency should be adjusted to allow establishment of desired species.


Vegetative cover of at least 85% consisting of at least 80% Arundinaria gigantea should be maintained over moist areas. Occasional trees and patches of wet meadow may invade.

The Canebrake will be encouraged and maintained by periodic burning. Cane will be allowed to migrate and/or spread as it prefers within the site.

Establishment of cane may be slow so care must be taken in judging the success of management activities. If unwanted species outcompete the cane while it is getting established, manual methods such as pulling and cutting should be employed to free up cane plants. To maintain it as a climax community, burning of the canebrake could occur at an average frequency of every 3-7 years or more often especially in areas where it grades into meadow. Burning may be done in concert with the open meadow burning.

Creek bluff

A well developed canopy cover representative of a lower slope mesic forest with its accompaniment of sub-canopy, understory, and ground layer should be maintained. However, the lower layers of vegetation should be more open than usually occurs in such a community. Invasive species should be eliminated if possible.

Encourage some fire tolerant species to invade but maintain essentially as is with fewer exotic invasives.

Very infrequent low intensity burning can be combined with manual removal of dense understory and invasive species.

It should be mentioned that once the various management activities have begun to bring about the desired visual and ecological characteristics to the various management units, if possible it would be desirable to treat the whole site as one fire compartment as it might have been in the presettlement landscape. Whether or not this is a viable management option might be determined by experimenting and monitoring.

Implementation Of Management Plan

The state forestry commission may offer controlled burning as a service, or the appropriate department of the University might be contacted. In any case, burning must be supervised by qualified individuals. Volunteers may be needed and should be encouraged as part of the education process. Burning may be most appropriate on weekends when coordinated with educational programs and public involvement. Mowing, if necessary, should be done by informed botanical garden staff according to the management plan. Staff may also be responsible for invasive species management, although this is an area appropriate for volunteer participation. If important or rare plant material becomes available at some point, then, for a time, introducing it to the site may become the priority of management. Once established (after 3 years) the site should require little management; if, however, monitoring for invasives is not done, and the burning/mowing plans are not followed, a second restoration of the site would be required.

Monitoring And Modifying

Botanical garden staff may be involved in monitoring, though this area may be most appropriate for interested scientists or professionals. Volunteers and University students in related studies could also be enlisted to perform quadrat layout, inventory and analysis. If monitoring reveals inadequate performance then modification of management goals, objectives, strategies or methods may be necessary. Monitoring will also be necessary to collect useful information for any research associated with the project.

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The Presettlement Piedmont Savanna - A Model For Landscape Design and Management - Philip Juras 1997
Table of Contents - Chapters: One - Two - Three - Four - Five - Six - Seven - Eight - Works Cited - Appendices: A - B - C - D - E